Phase 1 Accomplishments – Video

Phase 1 Accomplishments – Report

SETS Convergence Report 2019 – 2021 (PDF)

Journal Articles

In Review

Maurer, M., Cook, E.M, Yoon, L., Visnic, O., Orlove, B., Culligan, P., & Mailloux, B. Understanding Multiple Dimensions of Greenspace Access and their Effect on Subjective Well-being During a Global Pandemic. (in review). Frontiers in Sustainable Cities.

McPhearson, T., Cook, E. M., Berbés-Blázquez, M., Chen, C., Grimm, N. B., Andersson, E., Barbosa, O., Chandler, D. G., Chester, M., Childers, D., Frantzeskaki, N., Grabowski, Z., Groffman, P., Hale, R. L., Iwaniec, D., Kabish, N., Kennedy, C., Markolf, S. A., Master, A. M., McPhillips, L., Miller, T., Muñoz-Erickson, T. A., Rosi, E., Troxler, T. G. A Social-Ecological-Technological Systems Framework for Urban Ecosystem Services. (in review). One Earth.


Andersson, E., Haase, D., Anderson, P., Cortinovis, C., Goodness, J., Kendal, D., Lausch, A., McPhearson, T., Sikorska, D., & Wellmann, T. (2021). What are the traits of a social-ecological system: towards a framework in support of urban sustainability. npj Urban Sustain 1, 14. DOI: 10.1038/s42949-020-00008-4 (link)

Andersson, E., Borgström, S., Haase, D., Langemeyer, J., Mascarenhas, A., McPhearson, T., Wolff, M., Łaszkiewicz, E., Kronenberg, J., Barton, D. N., & Herreros-Cantis, P. (2021). A context-sensitive systems approach for understanding and enabling ecosystem service realization in cities. Ecology and Society 26(2):35. DOI: 10.5751/ES-12411-260235 (link)

Carvalhaes, T., Chester, M., Reddy, A., & Allenby, B. (2021). An Overview & Synthesis of Disaster Resilience Indices from a Complexity Perspective. International Journal of Disaster Risk Reduction, 102165. DOI: 10.1016/j.ijdrr.2021.102165 (link)

Chang, H., Makido, Y., & Foster, E. (2021). Effects of land use change, wetland fragmentation, and best management practices on total suspended sediment concentrations in an urbanizing Oregon watershed, USA. Journal of Environmental Management, 282: 111962. DOI: 10.1016/j.jenvman.2021.111962 (link)

Chang, H., Pallathadka, A., Sauer, J., Grimm, N., Zimmerman, R., Cheng, C., Iwaniec, D.M., Kim, Y., Lloyd, R., McPhearson, T., Rosenzweig, B., Troxler, T., Welty, C., Brenner, R, & Herreros-Cantis, P. (2021). Assessment of Urban Flood Vulnerability Using the Social-Ecological-Technological Systems Framework in Six US cities. Sustainable Cities and Society: 102786.
DOI: 10.1016/j.scs.2021.102786 (link)

Chester, M., Underwood, B.S., Allenby, B., Garcia, M., Samaras, C., Markolf, S., Sanders, K., Preston, B., & Miller, T.M. (2021). Infrastructure resilience to navigate increasingly uncertain and complex conditions in the Anthropocene. npj Urban Sustain 1, 4. DOI: 10.1038/s42949-021-00016-y (link)

Egerer, M., Haase, D., McPhearson, T., Frantzeskaki, N., Andersson, E., Nagendra, H., & Ossola, A. (2021). Urban change as an untapped opportunity for climate adaptation. npj Urban Sustain 1, 22. DOI: 10.1038/s42949-021-00024-y (link)

Elmqvist, T., Andersson, E., McPhearson, T., Bai, X., Bettencourt, L., Brondizio, E., Colding, J., Daily, G., Folke, C., Grimm, N., Haase, D., Ospina, D., Parnell, S., Polasky, S., Seto, K. C. & Van Der Leeuw, S. (2021). Urbanization in and for the Anthropocene. npj Urban Sustain 16. DOI: 10.1038/s42949-021-00018-w (link)

Frantzeskaki, N., McPhearson, T. & Kabisch, N. (2021). Urban sustainability science: prospects for innovations through a system’s perspective, relational and transformations’ approaches. Ambio. DOI: 10.1007/s13280-021-01521-1 (link)

Galaz, V, Centeno, M., Callahan, P., Causevic, A., Patterson, T., Brass, I., Baum, S., Farber, D., Fischer, J., Garcia, D., McPhearson, T., Jimenez, D., King, B., Larcey, P., & Levy, K. (2021). Artificial intelligence, systemic risks, and sustainability. Technology in Society 67(101741). DOI: 10.1016/j.techsoc.2021.101741 (link)

Helmrich, A., Markolf, S., Li, R., Carvalhaes, T., Kim, Y., Bondank, E., Natarajan, M., Ahmad, M., & Chester, M. (2021). Centralization and decentralization for resilient infrastructure and complexity. Environmental Research Infrastructure and Stability 1(021001). DOI: 10.1088/2634-4505/ac0a4f (link)

Herreros-Cantis, P. & McPhearson, T. (2021). Mapping supply of and demand for ecosystem services to assess environmental justice in New York City. Ecological Applications, e2390. DOI: 10.1002/eap.2390 (link)

Hoover, F-A., Meerow, S., Grabowski, Z., & McPhearson, T. (2021). Environmental justice implications of siting criteria in urban green infrastructure planning. Journal of Environmental Policy & Planning, 1–18. DOI: 10.1080/1523908X.2021.1945916 (link)

Kim, Y., Grimm, N., Chester, M., & Redman, C. (2021). Capturing practitioner perspectives on infrastructure resilience using Q-methodology. Environmental Research Infrastructure and Sustainability 1(025002). DOI: 10.1088/2634-4505/ac0f98 (link)

Kronenberg, J., Andersson, E., Barton, D., Borgström, S., Langemeyer, J., Björklund, T., Haase, D., Kennedy, C., Koprowska, K., Łaszkiewicz, E., McPhearson, T., Stange, E., & Wolff, M. (2021). The thorny path toward greening: unintended consequences, trade-offs, and constraints in green and blue infrastructure planning, implementation, and management. Ecology and Society 26(2):36. 10.5751/ES-12445-260236 (link)

Markolf, S.A., Chester, M.V., & Allenby, B. (2021). Opportunities and Challenges for Artificial Intelligence Applications in Infrastructure Management During the Anthropocene. Frontiers in Water 2: 551598. DOI: 10.3389/frwa.2020.551598 (link)

Markolf, S.A., Chester, M.V., Helmrich, A.M., & Shannon, K. (2021). Re-imagining design storm criteria for the challenges of the 21st century. Cities 109, 102981DOI: 10.1016/j.cities.2020.102981 (link)

Martinuzzi, S., Locke, D.H., Ramos-González, O., Sanchez, M., Grove, J.M., Muñoz-Erickson, T.A., Arendt, W.J., & Bauer, G. (2021). Exploring the relationships between treecanopy cover and socioeconomic characteristics in tropical urban systems: the case of Santo Domingo, Dominican Republic. Urban Forestry & Urban Greening. DOI: 10.1016/j.ufug.2021.127125 (link)

McPhearson, T., Grabowski, Z., Herreros-Cantis, P., Mustafa, A., Ortiz, L., Kennedy, C., Tomateo, C., Lopez, B., Olivotto, V., & Vantu, A. (2021). Pandemic Injustice: Spatial and Social Distributions of the first wave of COVID-19 in the US Epicenter. Journal of Extreme Events. (link)

McPhearson, T., Raymond, C.M., Gulsrud, N., Albert, C., Coles, N., Fagerholm, N., Nagatsu, M., Olafsson, A.S., Soininen, N., Vierikko, N. (2021). Radical changes are needed for transformations to a good Anthropocene. npj Urban Sustain 15. DOI: 10.1038/s42949-021-00017-x (link)

Meerow, S., Helmrich, A.M., Andrade, R., & Larson, K.L. (2021). How do heat and flood risk drive residential green infrastructure implementation in Phoenix, Arizona? Urban Ecosystems. DOI: 10.1007/s11252-020-01088-x (link)

Muñoz-Erickson, T.A., Meerow, S., Hobbins, R., Barnett, A., Berbés-Blázquez, M., Cook, E., Cordero, J., Changdeok, G., Grimm, N., Iwaniec, D., Miller, T.R., Robles, A., Tandazo, F. (2021). Beyond Bouncing Back? Comparing and Contesting Urban Resilience in US and Latin American Contexts. Landscape and Urban Planning 214, 104173. DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2021.104173 (link)

Mustafa, A., Ebaid, A., Omrani, H., & McPhearson, T. (2021). A multi-objective Markov Chain Monte Carlo cellular automata model: Simulating multi-density urban expansion in NYC. Computers, Environment and Urban Systems, 87, 101602. (link)

Rienow, A., Mustafa, A., Krelaus, L., & Lindner, C. (2021). Modeling urban regions: Comparing random forest and support vector machines for cellular automata. Transactions in GIS. DOI: 10.1111/tgis.12756 (link)

Spotswood, E., Benjamin, M., Stoneburner, L., Wheeler, M., Beller, E., Balk, D., McPhearson, T., Kuo, M., & McDonald, R. (2021). Nature inequity and higher COVID-19 case rates in less-green neighbourhoods in the United States. Nature Sustainability. (link)

Venter, Z., Barton, D., Martinez-Izquierdo, L., Langemeyer, J., Baró, F., & McPhearson, T. (2021). Interactive spatial planning of urban green infrastructure – Retrofitting green roofs where ecosystem services are most needed in Oslo. Ecosystem Services 50, 101314. DOI:10.1016/j.ecoser.2021.101314 (link)

Zhou, W., Pickett, S.T.A. & McPhearson, T. (2021). Conceptual frameworks facilitate integration for transdisciplinary urban science. npj Urban Sustain 1, 1. DOI: 10.1038/s42949-020-00011-9 (link)


Ahmad, N., Chester, M., Bondank, E., Arabi, M., Johnson, N., & Ruddell, B.L. (2020). A synthetic water distribution network model for urban resilience. Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure. DOI: 10.1080/23789689.2020.1788230 (link)

Bondank, E. & Chester, M. (2020). Infrastructure Interdependency Failures From Extreme Weather Events as a Complex Process. Frontiers in Water. DOI: 10.3389/frwa.2020.00021 (link)

Carvalhaes, T., Markolf, S., Helmrich, A., Kim, Y., Li, R., Natarajan, M., Bondank, E., Ahmad, N., & Chester, M. (2020). COVID-19 as a Harbinger of Transforming Infrastructure Resilience. Frontiers in Built Environment, 6: 148. DOI: 10.3389/fbuil.2020.00148 (link)

Chester, M.V. (2020). Industrial ecology in support of climate change adaptation. Journal of Industrial Ecology, 24(2): 271-275. DOI:10.1111/jiec.13006 (link)

Chester, M.V. & Allenby, B. (2020) Toward adaptive infrastructure: the Fifth Discipline, Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure. DOI: 10.1080/23789689.2020.1762045 (link)

Chester, M.V., Miller, T., & Muñoz-Erickson, T.A. (2020). Infrastructure governance for the Anthropocene. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene, 8(1): 078. DOI: 10.1525/elementa.2020.078 (link)

Chester, M., Underwood, B.S. & Samaras, C. (2020). Keeping infrastructure reliable under climate uncertainty. Nature Climate Change, 10(6): 488-490. DOI: 10.1038/s41558-020-0741-0 (link)

Fraser, A.M., Chester, M.V. & Underwood, B.S. (2020). Wildfire risk, post-fire debris flows, and transportation infrastructure vulnerability. Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure. DOI: 10.1080/23789689.2020.1737785 (link)

Helmrich, A.M. & Chester, M.V. (2020). Reconciling complexity and deep uncertainty in infrastructure design for climate adaptation. Sustainable and Resilient Infrastructure. DOI: 10.1080/23789689.2019.1708179 (link)

Helmrich, A.M, Chester, M.V, Hayes, S., Markolf, S.A., Desha, C., & Grimm, N.B. (2020). Using Biomimicry to Support Resilient Infrastructure Design. Earth’s Future, 8(12). DOI: 10.1029/2020EF001653 (link)

Herreros-Cantis, P., Olivotto, V., Grabowski, Z.J., & McPhearson, T. (2020). Shifting landscapes of coastal flood risk: environmental (in)justice of urban change, sea level rise, and differential vulnerability in New York City. Urban Transform, 2(9). DOI: 10.1186/s42854-020-00014-w (link)

Iwaniec, D.M., Cook, E.M., Davidson, M.J., Berbés-Blázquez, M., Georgescu, M., Krayenhoff, E.S., Middel, A., Sampson, D.A., & Grimm, N.B. (2020). The co-production of sustainable future scenarios. Landscape and Urban Planning197: 103744. DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2020.103744 (link)

Iwaniec, D.M., Cook, E.M., Davidson, M.J., Berbés-Blásquez, M., & Grimm, N.B. (2020). Integrating existing climate adaptation planning into future visions: a strategic scenario for the central Arizona–Phoenix region. Landscape and Urban Planning, 200: 103820DOI: 10.1016/j.landurbplan.2020.103820 (link)

Rosenzweig, B.R., Herreros-Cantis, P., Kim, Y., Cohn, A., Grove, K., Brock, J., Yesuf, J., Mistry, P., Welty, C., McPhearson, T., Sauer, J., & Chang, H. (2020). The Value of Urban Flood Modeling. Earth’s Future, 9(1). DOI: 10.1029/2020EF001739. (link)


Childers, D.L., Bois, P., Hartnett, H.E., McPhearson, T., Metson, G., & Sanchez, C.A. (2019). Urban Ecological Infrastructure: An inclusive concept for the non-built urban environment. Elementa: Science of the Anthropocene7(1): 46. DOI: 10.1525/elementa.385 (link)


Derrible, S., & Chester, M.V. (Eds). (2020). Urban infrastructure: Reflections for 2100. Amazon. (link)

Hamstead, Z.A., Iwaniec, D.M., McPhearson, T., Berbés-Blázquez, M., Cook, E.M., Munoz-Erickson, T.A. (Eds.). (2021). Resilient Urban Futures. Springer International Publishing. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-63131-4 (link)

Book Chapters

Grimm, N. B. (2020). Urban ecology: what is it and why do we need it? In P. Barbosa (Ed.), Urban ecology: its nature and challenges (pp. 1–14). CABI. DOI: 10.1079/9781789242607.0001 (link)

Hölscher, K., Frantzeskaki, N., McPhearson, T., & Loorbach, D. (2020). Capacities for Transformative Climate Governance in New York City. In K. Hölscher & N. Frantzeskaki (Eds.), Transformative Climate Governance: A Capacities Perspective to Systematise, Evaluate and Guide Climate Action (pp. 205–240). Springer International Publishing. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-49040-9_6 (link)

McPhearson, T. (2020). Transforming Cities and Science for Climate Change Resilience in the Anthropocene. In K. Hölscher & N. Frantzeskaki (Eds.), Transformative Climate Governance: A Capacities Perspective to Systematise, Evaluate and Guide Climate Action (pp. 99–111). Springer International Publishing. DOI: 10.1007/978-3-030-49040-9_3 (link)

Conference Presentations

Chester, M. & Iwaniec, D. (2020, January 13 – 15). Growing Convergence Research – PI Meeting. Westin Old Town, Alexandria, VA.

Chester, M. (2020, August 3 – 6). A SETS approach to understanding interdependent technological (T) infrastructure for resilience in cities. In T. McPhearson (Organizer) and D. Iwaniec (Co-organizer/moderator), A Social-Ecological-Technological systems (SETS) Approach to Advancing Urban Systems Science. Symposium at the 2020 Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting. Virtual. (link)

Cook, E., Muñoz-Erickson, T., Berbés-Blázquez, M., Grimm, N., Hobbins, R., Iwaniec, D., & Mannetti, L. (2020, August 3 – 6). A SETS approach to understanding social (S) values, visions, and community engagement approaches for urban resilience. In T. McPhearson (Organizer) and D. Iwaniec (Co-organizer/moderator), A Social-Ecological-Technological systems (SETS) Approach to Advancing Urban Systems Science. Symposium at the 2020 Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting. Virtual. (link)

Grimm, N. (2020, October 26 – 29). The need for positive thinking in times of crisis: co-producing sustainable future scenarios and nature-based solutions for cities. Limnología 2020: Limnología en un mundo en cambio. Virtual. (link)

Grimm, N. (2020, November 24). Urban sustainability: resilience to extreme events in social-ecological-technological systems (SETS). National Academy of Sciences Sustainability Roundtable Webinar Series. Virtual. (link)

Grimm, N. (2021, February 18). Merging concepts of resilience to meet challenges of the Anthropocene. The Future of Synthesis in Ecology. National Center for Ecological Analysis and Synthesis. Virtual (link)

Grimm, N., Berbés Blázquez, M., Chang, H., Cook, E., Elser, S., Iwaniec, D., McPhearson, T., Pallathadka, A., Sauer, J., & Troxler, T. (2020, August 3 – 6). A SETS approach to understanding urban ecosystem (E) vulnerability and providing nature-based solutions for urban resilience in cities. In T. McPhearson (Organizer) and D. Iwaniec (Co-organizer/moderator), A Social-Ecological-Technological systems (SETS) Approach to Advancing Urban Systems Science. Symposium at the 2020 Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting. Virtual. (link)

McPhearson, T. (2020, January 13 – 15). SETS Convergence Presentation. Growing Convergence Research – PI Meeting. Westin Old Town Alexandria, VA.

McPhearson, T. (2020, January 26 – February 1). Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. AR6 Third Lead Author Meeting, Faro, Portugal. (link)

McPhearson, T., Sauter, D., Mustafa, A., Ortiz, L., Iwaniec, D., Cook, E., Munoz-Erickson, T., & Grimm, N. (2020, August 3 – 6). A SETS approach to big data, spatial modeling, and data visualization to advance urban systems science for resilience. In T. McPhearson (Organizer) and D. Iwaniec (Co-organizer/moderator), A Social-Ecological-Technological systems (SETS) Approach to Advancing Urban Systems Science. Symposium at the 2020 Ecological Society of America Annual Meeting. Virtual. (link)

Story Maps

Hobbins, R. and Muñoz-Erickson, T.A. 2020. Seguridad Alimentaria y Energética (Food and Energy Security)(link)

Hobbins, R. and Muñoz-Erickson, T.A. 2020. Ciudad Justa y Habitable (Just and Livable City)(link)

Hobbins, R. and Muñoz-Erickson, T.A. 2020. Municipio Conectado (Connected Municipality)(link)

Hobbins, R. and Muñoz-Erickson, T.A. 2020. Inundaciones Urbanas (Urban Flooding)(link)

Hobbins, R.; Muñoz-Erickson, T.A.; Méndez-Lázaro, P. 2020. Inundaciones Costeras (Coastal Flooding)(link)

Hobbins, R. and Muñoz-Erickson, T.A. 2020. Inundaciones Ribereñas (River Flooding)(link)

Other Products

Business-as-usual (BAU) models 

Climate Resilience Survey and Factsheet

Ecosystem Services Assessment

Ekos SETS Convergence Game 

eRAMS Convergence Database

Future Cities Podcast episodes 49-52, 53

Governance Document Analysis Protocol

Institutional Analysis – Atlanta Stormwater (Educational Aid)

Network Analysis Database

Transitions Toolkit